Recent PubMed Articles on Coeliac Disease (External)

Causal relationships among the gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids and metabolic diseases.

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Causal relationships among the gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids and metabolic diseases.

Nat Genet. 2019 04;51(4):600-605

Authors: Sanna S, van Zuydam NR, Mahajan A, Kurilshikov A, Vich Vila A, Võsa U, Mujagic Z, Masclee AAM, Jonkers DMAE, Oosting M, Joosten LAB, Netea MG, Franke L, Zhernakova A, Fu J, Wijmenga C, McCarthy MI

Abstract
Microbiome-wide association studies on large population cohorts have highlighted associations between the gut microbiome and complex traits, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity1. However, the causal relationships remain largely unresolved. We leveraged information from 952 normoglycemic individuals for whom genome-wide genotyping, gut metagenomic sequence and fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were available2, then combined this information with genome-wide-association summary statistics for 17 metabolic and anthropometric traits. Using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess causality3, we found that the host-genetic-driven increase in gut production of the SCFA butyrate was associated with improved insulin response after an oral glucose-tolerance test (P = 9.8 × 10-5), whereas abnormalities in the production or absorption of another SCFA, propionate, were causally related to an increased risk of T2D (P = 0.004). These data provide evidence of a causal effect of the gut microbiome on metabolic traits and support the use of MR as a means to elucidate causal relationships from microbiome-wide association findings.

PMID: 30778224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MicroRNAs link chronic inflammation in childhood to growth impairment and insulin-resistance.

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MicroRNAs link chronic inflammation in childhood to growth impairment and insulin-resistance.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018 02;39:1-18

Authors: Cirillo F, Lazzeroni P, Catellani C, Sartori C, Amarri S, Street ME

Abstract
MicroRNAs are involved in multiple pathophysiological networks and in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of human disorders, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Impaired linear growth is encountered in children with chronic inflammatory conditions such as cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, celiac disease and in subjects born intrauterine growth restricted/small for gestational age. Children with inflammatory conditions may also be at risk of developing insulin resistance as a result of the inflammatory process and concurrent therapy. Chronic inflammation may lead to a continuum of abnormalities in the Growth hormone/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-I) axis, including relative GH insufficiency, GH/IGF-I resistance due to down regulation of GH and IGF-I receptors, changes in GH and IGF-I bioavailability due to modifications of binding proteins, and/or impaired GH/IGF-I signaling. The aim of this review is first to summarize the current knowledge concerning microRNAs involved in inflammation in the most relevant chronic inflammatory diseases in childhood, second to provide new insights into miRNA regulation of growth and insulin sensitivity mediated by the inflammatory processes. We evaluated single microRNAs involved in inflammation in the single conditions mentioned above and verified which had validated and predicted targets within the GH receptor, IGF-I type 1 receptor and insulin receptor interactomes. The findings show a new link among inflammation, growth and insulin sensitivity mediated by miRNAs that warrants further research in the future.

PMID: 29398400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anaphylaxis after wheat ingestion in a patient with coeliac disease: two kinds of reactions and the same culprit food.

Anaphylaxis after wheat ingestion in a patient with coeliac disease: two kinds of reactions and the same culprit food.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Apr 15;:

Authors: Mennini M, Fiocchi A, Trovato CM, Ferrari F, Iorfida D, Cucchiara S, Montuori M

Abstract
In recent years, the role of atopic dermatitis epidermal skin barrier defects in inducing a transcutaneous allergic sensitization is highly debated, possibly explaining why some children with eczema are sensitized to foods they have never eaten. In our specific situation, the association between coeliac disease and wheat allergy might be particularly harmful owing to unavoidable strict food avoidance. We describe the case of a young boy affected by coeliac disease who, after an occasional unexpected ingestion of gluten, experienced a complete anaphylactic reaction characterized by urticarial, labial angioedema, wheezing, and hypotension. To better investigate the state of allergic sensitization to wheat in our patient, we then performed the component resolved diagnosis, which showed Tri a19 2 kU/l and Tri a14 0.3 kU/l. These results demonstrated the association of IgE-mediated allergy to wheat and coeliac disease. The natural course of specific IgE in allergic patients who are on a food-free diet needs further investigation, such as the possible influence that the increasing popularity of gluten-free diets may have on the epidemiology of wheat allergy in westernized societies. National and International registers of cases of anaphylaxis may improve the still limited knowledge in this field. The final message of our contribution is that the decision to eliminate a food should to take into account a patient's awareness of possible consequences.

PMID: 30994495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Adherence to a Gluten-free Diet: Assessment by Dietician Interview and Serology.

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Adherence to a Gluten-free Diet: Assessment by Dietician Interview and Serology.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 03;66(3):e67-e70

Authors: Mehta P, Pan Z, Riley MD, Liu E

Abstract
We aimed to determine whether tissue transglutaminase (tTG) autoantibody positivity was associated with dietitian-assessed adherence to a gluten-free diet in pediatric patients with celiac disease and identify areas where adherence falters. We reviewed the records of children with celiac disease who had a standardized evaluation of adherence by a registered dietitian. A negative tTG value was not associated with good adherence (P = NS). Adherent and nonadherent children differed with respect to purposeful and accidental gluten exposure (P < 0.0001), knowledge (P = 0.003), cross-contact (P = 0.003), potential exposure via medications and cosmetics (P = 0.004), and potential exposure while at restaurants (P < 0.0001), but not with respect to potential exposure at school (P = NS). Based on our findings, we suggest that negative tTG levels are not necessarily indicative of good adherence to a gluten-free diet in pediatric patients with celiac disease. A separate assessment of adherence is needed focusing on knowledge, behavior while dining out, and intent to adhere.

PMID: 28806297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rotavirus Vaccination Does Not Increase Type 1 Diabetes and May Decrease Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents.

Rotavirus Vaccination Does Not Increase Type 1 Diabetes and May Decrease Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 May;38(5):539-541

Authors: Hemming-Harlo M, Lähdeaho ML, Mäki M, Vesikari T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) infection has been proposed to trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and celiac disease (CD) by molecular mimicry in genetically susceptible children. If so, a live attenuated oral RV vaccine could also trigger these autoimmune diseases, or else, prevent the effect of wild-type RV infection.
METHODS: In Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial, conducted between 2001 and 2003, the participant children received RotaTeq (Kenilworth, NJ) vaccine or placebo in 1:1 ratio. The surveillance was extended as Finnish Extension Study. A questionnaire was sent in 2015 to the parents of 19,133 Finnish Extension Study participants and 5764 (30%) returned the questionnaire. Diagnosis of DM1, biopsy-proven CD and other autoimmune disease over the 11-14 year period were inquired.
RESULTS: At the time of questionnaire, the prevalence of DM1 was similar in both groups, 0.97% (25 of 2580 children) in the placebo group and 1.04% (33 of 3184 children) in the vaccine group (P = 0.810). The prevalence of CD was significantly higher in placebo recipients (1.11%; confidence interval: 0.78%-1.6%) than in vaccine recipients (0.60%; confidence interval: 0.38%-0.93%) (P = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: RV vaccination using RotaTeq did not alter the occurrence of DM1 but decreased the prevalence of CD in childhood and adolescence. We propose that wild-type RV may trigger CD and the triggering effect can be prevented or reduced by RV vaccination.

PMID: 30986791 [PubMed - in process]

Role of HLA-DQ typing and anti-tTGA antibody titres in diagnosing celiac disease without duodenal biopsy in type 1 diabetes: A study of the population-based pediatric type 1 diabetes cohort of Western Australia.

Role of HLA-DQ typing and anti-tTGA antibody titres in diagnosing celiac disease without duodenal biopsy in type 1 diabetes: A study of the population-based pediatric type 1 diabetes cohort of Western Australia.

Pediatr Diabetes. 2019 Apr 15;:

Authors: Joshi KK, Haynes A, Davis EA, D'Orsogna L, McLean-Tooke A

Abstract
AIM: The primary aim of the current study was to determine if it is cost effective to use HLA typing as a first line screening test for celiac disease (CD) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), as recommended by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). The second aim was to investigate whether anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (anti-tTGA) antibodies can be used to diagnose CD without the need for a confirmatory duodenal biopsy in T1D.
METHODS: Data for all T1D patients aged < 18 years, who attended the diabetes clinics in Western Australia up to June 2017, were extracted from the Western Australian Children's Diabetes Database (WACDD) and analyzed for their demographic data and CD permissive HLA alleles (DQ2, DQ8 and DQ7). For T1D patients already diagnosed with CD, the mode of diagnosis of CD, anti-tTGA titers and CD permissive HLA alleles were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 936 eligible T1D patients identified, HLA-DQ typing was available for 551 (59%). Of these 551 patients, 504 (91.2 %) were positive for celiac permissive HLA alleles. Eight percent (n=75) of the T1D patients had a co-diagnosis of CD. High anti-tTGA titers were observed in those who were diagnosed with a positive duodenal biopsy.
CONCLUSION: HLA-DQ typing is not cost effective as a first line screening test for CD in T1D patients due to over-representation of CD permissive HLA alleles in this group. Anti-tTGA titers may be useful in diagnosing CD in T1D without duodenal biopsy, as high levels were found to be strongly predictive of CD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30985044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Infant milk-feeding practices and diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in offspring: a systematic review.

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Infant milk-feeding practices and diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in offspring: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Mar 01;109(Supplement_7):838S-851S

Authors: Güngör D, Nadaud P, Dreibelbis C, LaPergola CC, Wong YP, Terry N, Abrams SA, Beker L, Jacobovits T, Järvinen KM, Nommsen-Rivers LA, O'Brien KO, Oken E, Pérez-Escamilla R, Ziegler EE, Spahn JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: During the Pregnancy and Birth to 24 Months Project, the USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services initiated an evidence review on diet and health in these populations.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of these systematic reviews was to examine the relationships of never versus ever feeding human milk, shorter versus longer durations of any and exclusive human milk feeding, and feeding a lower versus a higher intensity of human milk to mixed-fed infants with diagnosed celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
METHODS: The Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team (formerly called the Nutrition Evidence Library) conducted systematic reviews with external experts. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, and PubMed for articles published January, 1980 to March, 2016, dual-screened the results using predetermined criteria, extracted data from and assessed risk of bias for each included study, qualitatively synthesized the evidence, developed conclusion statements, and graded the strength of the evidence.
RESULTS: We included 9 celiac disease and 17 IBD articles. Limited case-control evidence suggests never versus ever being fed human milk is associated with higher risk of celiac disease, but concerns about reverse causality precluded a conclusion about the relationship of shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding with celiac disease. Evidence examining never versus ever feeding human milk and IBD was inconclusive, and limited, but consistent, case-control evidence suggests that, among infants fed human milk, shorter versus longer durations of any human milk feeding are associated with higher risk of IBD. For both outcomes, evidence examining the duration of exclusive human milk feeding was scant and no articles examined the intensity of human milk fed to mixed-fed infants.
CONCLUSION: Limited case-control evidence suggests that feeding human milk for short durations or not at all associates with higher risk of diagnosed IBD and celiac disease, respectively. The small number of studies and concern about reverse causality and recall bias prevent stronger conclusions.

PMID: 30982875 [PubMed - in process]

Genistein antagonizes gliadin-induced CFTR malfunction in models of celiac disease.

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Genistein antagonizes gliadin-induced CFTR malfunction in models of celiac disease.

Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Apr 12;:

Authors: Esposito S, Villella VR, Ferrari E, Monzani R, Tosco A, Rossin F, D'Eletto M, Castaldo A, Luciani A, Silano M, Bona G, Marseglia GL, Romani L, Piacentini M, Raia V, Kroemer G, Maiuri L

Abstract
In celiac disease (CD), an intolerance to dietary gluten/gliadin, antigenic gliadin peptides trigger an HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted adaptive Th1 immune response. Epithelial stress, induced by other non-antigenic gliadin peptides, is required for gliadin to become fully immunogenic. We found that cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator (CFTR) acts as membrane receptor for gliadin-derived peptide P31-43, as it binds to CFTR and impairs its channel function. P31-43-induced CFTR malfunction generates epithelial stress and intestinal inflammation. Maintaining CFTR in an active open conformation by the CFTR potentiators VX-770 (Ivacaftor) or Vrx-532, prevents P31-43 binding to CFTR and controls gliadin-induced manifestations. Here, we evaluated the possibility that the over-the-counter nutraceutical genistein, known to potentiate CFTR function, would allow to control gliadin-induced alterations. We demonstrated that pre-treatment with genistein prevented P31-43-induced CFTR malfunction and an epithelial stress response in Caco-2 cells. These effects were abrogated when the CFTR gene was knocked out by CRISP/Cas9 technology, indicating that genistein protects intestinal epithelial cells by potentiating CFTR function. Notably, genistein protected gliadin-sensitive mice from intestinal CFTR malfunction and gliadin-induced inflammation as it prevented gliadin-induced IFN-γ production by celiac peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMC) cultured ex-vivo in the presence of P31-43-challenged Caco-2 cells. Our results indicate that natural compounds capable to increase CFTR channel gating might be used for the treatment of CD.

PMID: 30981209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Author Correction: Gut microbiome structure and metabolic activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

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Author Correction: Gut microbiome structure and metabolic activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

Nat Microbiol. 2019 Apr 10;:

Authors: Franzosa EA, Sirota-Madi A, Avila-Pacheco J, Fornelos N, Haiser HJ, Reinker S, Vatanen T, Hall AB, Mallick H, McIver LJ, Sauk JS, Wilson RG, Stevens BW, Scott JM, Pierce K, Deik AA, Bullock K, Imhann F, Porter JA, Zhernakova A, Fu J, Weersma RK, Wijmenga C, Clish CB, Vlamakis H, Huttenhower C, Xavier RJ

Abstract
In the Supplementary Tables 2, 4 and 6 originally published with this Article, the authors mistakenly included sample identifiers in the form of UMCGs rather than UMCG IBDs in the validation cohort; this has now been amended.

PMID: 30971771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Diagnostic delay of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in Saudi Arabia.

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Diagnostic delay of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2019 Apr 05;:

Authors: El Mouzan MI, AlSaleem BI, Hasosah MY, Al Hussaini AA, Al Anazi AH, Saadah OI, Al Sarkhy AA, Al Mofarreh MA, Assiri AA

Abstract
Background/Aim: Delay in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with complications. Our aim was to describe the pattern and risk factors associated with delay in the diagnosis of IBD in Saudi children.
Patients and Methods: This was a multicenter study with a retrospective/prospective design. Data on diagnostic delay in children with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were retrieved from physician's notes. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors associated with long delay in diagnosis.
Results: There were 240 and 183 Saudi children with CD and UC, respectively. The median delays in diagnosis were 8 and 5 months in CD and UC, respectively, significantly longer in children with CD than UC (P < 0.001). Long diagnostic delays (>75th percentile) were 24 and 8.8 months for CD and UC, respectively. Ileal location was a significant risk factor in CD and the age of onset above 10 years was protective in UC.
Conclusions: Long diagnostic delay in IBD was mainly due to the longer delay in gastroenterologist consultation. Review of the referral system is needed to focus on measures to reduce long delays in diagnosis. The ileal location as a risk factor in CD and age older than 10 years as protective in UC should help recognition and early referral.

PMID: 30971589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Maternal genetic markers for risk of celiac disease and their potential association with neural tube defects in offspring.

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Maternal genetic markers for risk of celiac disease and their potential association with neural tube defects in offspring.

Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019 Apr 09;:e688

Authors: Hoang TT, Lei Y, Mitchell LE, Sharma SV, Swartz MD, Waller DK, Finnell RH, Benjamin RH, Browne ML, Canfield MA, Lupo PJ, McKenzie P, Shaw GM, Agopian AJ, National Birth Defects Prevention Study

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We examined the association between the maternal genotype for celiac disease-associated variants and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs).
METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We evaluated 667 cases (women with an offspring with NTD) and 743 controls (women with an offspring without a birth defect). We classified women as having low, intermediate, or high risk of celiac disease based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HLA celiac risk group (low, intermediate, high) and risk of NTDs. Fifteen non-HLA variants (identified from genome-wide association studies of celiac disease) were individually evaluated and modeled additively.
RESULTS: There was no association between HLA celiac risk group and NTDs (intermediate vs. low risk: aOR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3; high vs. low risk: aOR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3). Of the fifteen non-HLA variants, we observed five significant associations after accounting for multiple comparisons. Three negative associations were observed with rs10903122, rs13314993, rs13151961 (aOR range: 0.69-0.81), and two positive associations were observed with rs13003464 and rs11221332 (aOR range: 1.27-1.73).
CONCLUSION: If confirmed, our results suggest that the maternal variants related to celiac disease may be involved in the risk of NTDs.

PMID: 30968606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Profile of Urinary Headspace Volatile Organic Compounds After 12-Week Intake of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin by Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

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The Profile of Urinary Headspace Volatile Organic Compounds After 12-Week Intake of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin by Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Molecules. 2019 Apr 05;24(7):

Authors: Drabińska N, Jarocka-Cyrta E, Ratcliffe NM, Krupa-Kozak U

Abstract
The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can inform about the metabolic condition of the body. In the small intestine of untreated persons with celiac disease (CD), chronic inflammation can occur, leading to nutritional deficiencies, and consequently to functional impairments of the whole body. Metabolomic studies showed differences in the profile of VOCs in biological fluids of patients with CD in comparison to healthy persons; however, there is scarce quantitative and nutritional intervention information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) with prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) on the concentration of VOCs in the urine of children and adolescents with CD. Twenty-three participants were randomized to the group receiving Synergy 1 (10 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Urinary VOCs were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds were identified and quantified in urine samples. The supplementation of GFD with Synergy 1 resulted in an average concentration drop (36%) of benzaldehyde in urine samples. In summary, Synergy 1, applied as a supplement of GFD for 12 weeks had a moderate impact on the VOC concentrations in the urine of children with CD.

PMID: 30959740 [PubMed - in process]

Risk of Eating Disorders in Patients With Celiac Disease.

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Risk of Eating Disorders in Patients With Celiac Disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 01;66(1):53-57

Authors: Babio N, Alcázar M, Castillejo G, Recasens M, Martínez-Cerezo F, Gutiérrez-Pensado V, Vaqué C, Vila-Martí A, Torres-Moreno M, Sánchez E, Barrubés L, Salas-Salvadó J

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Several cases of eating disorders (EDs) have been reported in patients with celiac disease (CD), suggesting that ED could be a comorbidity associated with CD. Few epidemiological studies have, however, assessed this potential association. We aimed to evaluate the risk of EDs in individuals diagnosed with CD in comparison to healthy controls.
METHODS: A total of 98 cases and 98 controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index between 10 and 23 years old were studied. A questionnaire was completed on medical history and sociodemographic as well as anthropometric characteristics. Various ED screening self-reported tests were administered.
RESULTS: A total of 61.2% of the study population were girls with a mean age of 15.3 ± 3.7 years old. Patients with CD scored nonsignificantly higher on all the ED screening tests than control participants. No differences were observed between study groups in terms of the frequency of individuals who exceeded the clinical cutoff identifying those at risk of ED. Patients with CD above 13 years old were associated with a 2.15-point increase in the Eating Attitude Test score compared with controls [β-coefficient = 2.15 SE 1.04; P = 0.04] after adjusting for various confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: Although being a patient with CD was associated with a significantly higher Eating Attitude Test score in individuals older than 13 years old, no clear differences were observed between individuals with CD and controls in terms of risk of ED when other screening tests were used. More studies with larger samples and prospective designs are warranted to confirm these findings.

PMID: 28562523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Celiac Disease Symptom Resolution: Effectiveness of the Gluten-free Diet.

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Celiac Disease Symptom Resolution: Effectiveness of the Gluten-free Diet.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 01;66(1):48-52

Authors: Sansotta N, Amirikian K, Guandalini S, Jericho H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the gluten-free diet (GFD) on gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-intestinal (EI) symptom resolution and identify predictors for persistence of symptoms in all celiac patients at the University of Chicago.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2015. GI symptoms included abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, failure to thrive/weight loss, nausea, reflux, and vomiting. EI symptoms included abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis, alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgia, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and infertility.
RESULTS: A total of 554 patients (227 children) with celiac disease (CeD) were included. Abdominal pain, diarrhea and failure to thrive were the most common GI symptoms in children whereas diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain were most common in adults. Short stature, fatigue, and headache were the most common EI symptoms in children whereas iron deficiency anemia, fatigue, and headache/psychiatric disorders were most common in adults. Children had significantly higher rates of EI and GI symptom resolution as compared to adults, with greater rates of improvements in GI versus EI symptoms at more than 24 months. Long duration of symptoms, female sex, and non-adherence to a GFD were the most important significant predictors of failure to clinically improve.
CONCLUSIONS: On a strict GFD, children report greater rates of both GI and EI symptom resolution as compared to adults with greater rates of improvement in GI over EI symptoms. Early recognition of CeD and close attention to diet adherence may help in symptom resolution.

PMID: 28514243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Celiac Disease Autoimmunity.

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Celiac Disease Autoimmunity.

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2018 Dec;66(6):423-430

Authors: López Casado MÁ, Lorite P, Ponce de León C, Palomeque T, Torres MI

Abstract
Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition triggered by the ingestion of gluten, the protein fraction of wheat, barley and rye. It is not simply an intestinal disease; it is multifactorial caused by many different genetic factors acting together with non-genetic causes. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, celiac disease is a polygenic disorder for which the major histocompatibility complex locus is the most important genetic factor, and is the result of an immune response to self-antigens leading to tissue destruction and the autoantibodies production. Celiac disease exemplifies how an illness can have autoimmune-like features having to be driven by exogenous antigen and how can be reasonably considered as a model of organ-specific autoimmunity.

PMID: 30167716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A new ELISA for autoantibodies to steroid 21-hydroxylase.

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A new ELISA for autoantibodies to steroid 21-hydroxylase.

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2018 05 24;56(6):933-938

Authors: Del Pilar Larosa M, Chen S, Steinmaus N, Macrae H, Guo L, Masiero S, Garelli S, Costa MD, Bossowski A, Furmaniak J, Betterle C, Smith BR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A new ELISA for autoantibodies to steroid 21-hydroxylase (21-OH Ab) is described.
METHODS: In the assay test sample autoantibodies form a bridge between 21-OH coated onto the plate well and liquid phase 21-OH-biotin. Bound 21-OH-biotin is detected by the addition of streptavidin peroxidase and colorogenic peroxidase substrate.
RESULTS: Of 100 samples from patients with autoimmune Addison's disease, 86 (86%) were positive for 21-OH Ab ELISA whereas 84 (84%) were positive in an immunoprecipitation assay based on 125I-labeled 21-OH. Six (0.6%) of 928 healthy adult blood donors and 1 (2.0%) of 49 adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) were positive by ELISA. No samples from adult patients with Graves' disease (GD; n=50), celiac disease (n=29), systemic lupus erythematosis (n=9) or rheumatoid arthritis (n=20) were positive by ELISA. However, 2/51 (3.9%) children with GD, 3/69 (4.3%) children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and 3/119 (2.5%) children with T1DM alone or associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders were ELISA positive.
CONCLUSIONS: The new assay should be useful for screening patients known to be at increased risk of developing clinical autoimmune Addison's disease, in particular children with HT, GD and/or T1DM.

PMID: 29267164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Coeliac disease in children: a changing clinical spectrum].

[Coeliac disease in children: a changing clinical spectrum].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2019 Mar 19;163:

Authors: van Kalleveen MW, de Meij T, Plötz FB

Abstract
Over the past decades the clinical spectrum of paediatric coeliac disease has profoundly changed, from a classical presentation with distended abdomen, diarrhoea and failure to thrive to more atypical symptoms. These days, children commonly present with symptoms such as recurrent abdominal pain, fatigue, iron deficiency anaemia and constipation. Age at diagnosis has also increased over the past few years. In the past 20 years the incidence of the disease in the Netherlands has increased from 12.3 to 21.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, reaching a stable level in the past 5 years. In approximately 10% of children, serological test results are negative on first examination but become positive after repeated testing in the years that follow, emphasising the need for alertness when first tests are negative and symptoms persist. We underscore the guidelines' advice to apply a low threshold in testing for coeliac disease in children with atypical symptoms.

PMID: 30945827 [PubMed - in process]

Potential use of MCR-ALS for the identification of coeliac-related biochemical changes in hyperspectral Raman maps from pediatric intestinal biopsies.

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Potential use of MCR-ALS for the identification of coeliac-related biochemical changes in hyperspectral Raman maps from pediatric intestinal biopsies.

Integr Biol (Camb). 2018 06 18;10(6):356-363

Authors: Fornasaro S, Vicario A, De Leo L, Bonifacio A, Not T, Sergo V

Abstract
Raman hyperspectral imaging is an emerging practice in biological and biomedical research for label free analysis of tissues and cells. Using this method, both spatial distribution and spectral information of analyzed samples can be obtained. The current study reports the first Raman microspectroscopic characterisation of colon tissues from patients with Coeliac Disease (CD). The aim was to assess if Raman imaging coupled with hyperspectral multivariate image analysis is capable of detecting the alterations in the biochemical composition of intestinal tissues associated with CD. The analytical approach was based on a multi-step methodology: duodenal biopsies from healthy and coeliac patients were measured and processed with Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Based on the distribution maps and the pure spectra of the image constituents obtained from MCR-ALS, interesting biochemical differences between healthy and coeliac patients has been derived. Noticeably, a reduced distribution of complex lipids in the pericryptic space, and a different distribution and abundance of proteins rich in beta-sheet structures was found in CD patients. The output of the MCR-ALS analysis was then used as a starting point for two clustering algorithms (k-means clustering and hierarchical clustering methods). Both methods converged with similar results providing precise segmentation over multiple Raman images of studied tissues.

PMID: 29756143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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